# 11 Plus Addition Subtraction Multiplication and Division

Generally, four arithmetical operations are applied to numbers: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They even have their own signs like +, -, x and ÷ for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, respectively.

**Addition:**

Addition or sum operations are performed to add some quantity to another quantity. It is considered an **increment operator**. It uses the symbol **+ ****(Plus)**.

Let’s see an example of addition.

**Example1**: What is the value of £ 100 + £ 50?

**Sol**: It is asked to find the value of £ 100 **+** £ 50 = £ 150.

**Note**: While adding a term known as **carry** comes into the picture. Suppose you want to add 7 to 18, then carry will be generated, this is because 7 + 8 is more than 9, it is 15. So one is added to the 10s place to make it 25.

**Subtraction:**

Subtraction or difference operations are performed to remove some quantity from another quantity. It is considered as a **Decrement operator**. It uses the symbol **– ****(minus)**.

Let’s see an example of subtraction.

**Example1**: What is the value of £ 100 - £ 50?

**Sol**: It is asked to find the value of £ 100 **- **£ 50 = £ 50.

**Note**: While Subtracting, a term known as **borrow,** comes into the picture. Suppose you want to perform 27 - 8, then borrow will be required, this is because 8 is greater than 7. So 1 from 10s place is taken to make units place 17.

**Multiplication:**

Multiplication or product operations are performed to multiply some quantity with another quantity. It uses the symbol **x ****(into), **sometimes *****is also used.

Let’s see an example for Multiplication.

**Example1**:

What is the value of 10 x 5?

**Sol**: It is asked to find the value of 10 x 5 = 50. Which can also be found as 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 +10 = 50, instead of writing many times we use this operator.

**Division:**

Division operations are performed to divide some quantity into the required number of quantities. It uses the symbol **÷**** ****(by), **sometimes **/ **is also used. It is used in the concept of sharing.

Let’s see an example for Division.

**Example1**: What is the value of 10 ÷ 5?

**Sol**: It is asked to find the value of 10 ÷ 5 = 2. It means ten items are divided into five sets, and each set will have two items.

Now consider the above example from another point of view. Let A have 10 cherries, and he has 5 sons and wants to distribute among them then 10 ÷ 5 = 2 is performed, and each son gets 2 cherries.

Some other terms are involved in the division. Let’s have a short glance at them.

**Dividend ****÷**** Divisor = Quotient**

Sometimes we cannot divide the items equally. In the above example, if 11 cherries are considered instead of 10, then after distribution, one would have leftover, and it is called **Remainder**.

Important facts of Arithmetic Operations :

- The quantities involved in addition and subtraction must have
**similar units**. It means we cannot add or subtract 10km and 10kg as both the quantities are different. - Anything added or subtracted with
**0**gives same value (10 +**0**= 10; 20 –**0**= 20). - Product of 2 minus signs results is plus (i.e.
**– x - = +**). - Anything multiplied with 0 gives
**0**(1 million x**0**=**0**). - If dividend is 0 then quotient will be 0
**(0/10 = 0)**. - If dividend and divisor are equal, then the quotient will always be 1
**(10/10 = 1)**. - If the divisor is 0, then that division is treated as undefined
**(10/0 = undefined)**.

Some examples from our **11 Plus Maths Practice Papers:**

**Example:1**

**Example:2**

** Example:3**

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